- January 2008: cease to replenish 150 W lamps and above
- January 2009: cease to replenish 100 W lamps and above
- January 2010: cease to replenish 60 W lamps and above
- January 2011: Cease to replenish all remaining GLS lamps
- 31 December 2011: cease selling all remaining GLS lamps along with 60 W candle and golf-ball lamps.
As a consequence tungsten halogen lamps are now appearing that emit almost the same light output as 40, 60 and 100 W light bulbs but which consume about 30 per cent less energy and last twice as long. This technology was first introduced commercially in the 1960s with the addition of halogen gases to reduce the evaporation of the tungsten filament.
As they retain the tungsten filament of the light bulb, halogen lamps offer the same good colour appearance and rendering. They are suitable for use with existing dimmers. Unfortunately these new domestic halogen lamps emit slightly less light. This is probably insignificant in normal circumstances, but it weakens public confidence and provides an excuse not to change if the performance of replacement lamps is not truly equivalent.
For the aged and visually disabled, the reduction in illumination is more important and may present difficulties. A good point is the adoption of three new ratings of 28, 42 and 70 W as the norm by the lamp makers. This would appear to be obvious replacements for 40, 60 and 100 W lamps.
Information on the new halogen lamps is sparse and the only indication of light output is on the packaging where it is a requirement. Has the ambitious time scale set by the UK allowed sufficient time for the European lamp industry to restructure its manufacturing capacity?
Research for this article revealed that during January 2009 the shelves of the local supermarkets were devoid of 100 W GLS lamps with large empty spaces where the 70 W halogen lamps should have been placed. This halogen substitution is easier to comprehend than for CFLs, where there are 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18 and 20 W ratings to replace three GLS ratings. This is confusing, and compounded by the various shapes, colours and differing lamp lives.
While the halogen lamp is much closer to the GLS lamp (Table 2), the energy and cost saving are much less than can be achieved by changing to a compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). So the first choice should always be CFLs. Figure 1 indicates typical domestic costs based upon today's prices.
For technical reasons CFLs are only produced as the better fluorescent colour options. When shopping, we all choose clothes, furniture, and food are under fluorescent lighting - the normal environment that has replaced daylight. Switching on lighting is more an indication of occupation than a call for illumination.